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The newest technique in genealogy is the use of Y chromosome and maternal DNA to determine if persons of the same surname, or who descend from the same matriarch, are related. This method makes use of the non-coding and non-recombining parts of the Y chromosome DNA in men, and of the mtDNA in men and women. Both types of DNA are inherited virtually unchanged from either the father and/or the mother. Persons who descend from a common ancestor should have identical or nearly identical Y DNA and/or mtDNA as the person they descend from. In those cultures where the surname follows the male, this technique can be used to determine when individuals of the same surname descend from a common ancestor. At this time, it can not be used to pinpoint the ancestor, except in extraordinary circumstances.
A Parkins and Perkins surname Y DNA Study Project has been established. If interested, please see the home page at Parkins and Perkins surname Y DNA Study Project for details. This study covers the following spellings: Perkins, Parkins, Perkin, Parkin, Perkipile, Perkinson, Perkinsen, and Perquin. It is open to any male, of any racial group, with one of the aforesaid surnames or other variants. The Y chromosome used in the testing is only passed from father to sons. Women who are Perkins descendants and want to get the benefits of the Y DNA testing, should contact their nearest male Perkins relative and discuss the project with him. My Y DNA haplogroup is probably R1a1, and my mtDNA HVR1 designation is H with 16519C.
There are Y DNA studies for the following families in my ancestry:
- Anderson, R1b, Jacob Anderson, VA, Scott Co TN.
- Ball, R1b, John Ball, Prince William and Stafford Co.s VA.;
- Barnes, R1b, Thomas Barnes, West Indies and Hartford, CT.;
- Boone, R1b, Squire Boone, Bradnich, Devonshire, England, Berks Co., PA and Rowan Co.,NC.;
- Campbell, see Melungeon below;
- Clark (Northern Clark's) mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Clarke Glennon;
- Creekmore, Crickmer, Crickmay, R1a, Edmond Crickmon, Norfolk, Norfolk Co., VA;
- Davenport, ?R1b, Davis Davenport?;
- Davis, see, Melungeon below;
- McKee, see, Melungeon below
- Manning, Mannon;
- May ;
- Moses, I1b, Joshua Moses, Anson Co., NC and Whitley Co., KY;
- Perkins, R1a, Edward Perkins, New Haven Colony, CT.;
- Strunk, R1a1, Daniel Strunk, VA, Wilkes/Ashe CO., NC, Whitley Co., KY.;
- Wyatt, R1b, Samuel Wiatt, Greenbrier Co., VA/Greene Co., TN and Knox Co., KY;
- Yates, see Melungeon below;
- Irish Surnames DNA Project, mailto:email@example.com Dr. Dan Bradley (Trinity College, Dublin, Eire);
- Scottish Surnames DNA Project mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org John Hansen;
- Viking I and II;
- Welsh Patronymics;
The following page at the University of Leicester contains links to primary scientific research on the Y chromosome: The Y Chromosome as a Marker for the History and Structure of Human Populations.
The following article is one of the more important discussions of Y DNA: Semino, et.al., "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y chromosome Perspective", Science 2000, v 290, p.1155 et. seq.
This is a glossary of genetic terms: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms from the National Human Genome Research Institute.
Information on Y DNA testing and Genetics in family history research is available from the following web page: Chris Pomery's DNA Portal: DNA & the Family Historian.
This page by Dennis Garvey discusses Haplogroups and gives frequency tables for the possible variations: Haplogroups.
This page by Nancy Custer gives information on the Y-STR Loci Allele Frequencies as Reported in the Y-STR European and USA Databases.
Kevin Duerinck's page gives information on the various testing laboratories: Genetics Laboratories and Testing Sites